A New Class of Diabetes Medication Arrives in Singapore

Despite current treatment including insulin, only 40% of patients in Indonesia[1], 35% of patients in Singapore[2] and 22% of patients in Malaysia[3] have good diabetes control.

A new class of medication called the SGLT2 inhibitor has been approved in Singapore, the first one being Invokana (canagliflozin). It has a unique mode of action for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

In the kidneys when blood is pushed through a glomerulus (the smallest operating unit in the kidney), glomerular filtrate (earliest urine) is formed. It contains glucose (sugar), different ions, water and waste products. The good stuff is retained through reabsorption. Glucose is reabsorbed through the SGLT2 channels.

SGLT2 inhibitors block the action of the SGLT2 channels, so glucose is lost in urine. Thus the blood glucose drops and diabetes control improves. Patients also lose weight as they are losing energy in the urine. The glucose in the urine also drags water with it and thus patients’ blood pressure drops.

The most important benefit is that it is not dependent on insulin secretion, so the risk of a dangerously low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) is prevented. With this extra class of oral medication, patients may be able to delay their use of insulin.

There are side effects though. First, the sugar in the urine increases the risk of a urine tract infection and fungal infection around the urethra. Second, patients can get dehydrated unless they replenish their fluids with an extra glass of water.

I am very glad that we now have another weapon in the treatment of diabetes.

Reference:

1. Global Health. 2013; 9: 63. Published online Dec 3, 2013. doi: 10.1186/1744-8603-9-63.

2. BMC Endocrine Disorders 2013, 13:18 doi:10.1186/1472-6823-13-18.

3. Med J Malaysia Vol 66 No 3. 175-181.

Prepared by:
Dr. Daniel Wai Chun Hang
Endocrinology
Daniel Wai Diabetes, Thyroid and Hormone Pte Ltd

Disclaimer: The views and opinions in the article are the writer’s own and do not necessarily reflect those of Mount Elizabeth Medical Centre (MEMC). The writer is fully responsible for the accuracy, completeness and usefulness of the information provided in the article. MEMC will not be liable for any errors, omissions or copyright issues with regard to the contents of the article.